What is NRC? and What is NPR?

What is NRC and What is NPR
What is NRC? and What is NPR?

National Citizenship Register and National Population Register

After passing the citizenship amendment bill in the Indian parliament, many people started crying about NRC and said that, the CAA has a direct relation with NRC and due to this the citizenship of Indian Muslims is in danger.
Every day you are reading in the newspaper, watching on television and noticed the same thing that, there is a fierce movement everywhere. We see movement from North-East to Delhi. Today we will know about all these things and why this is happening. The movements that are going on in the country are due to the citizenship amendment act (CAA) and the National Register of Citizens (NRC). What have the Indian government done through this bill so that, the country was in a panic? Is this bad? Is this really unconstitutional?

NRC Full-Form - National Citizenship Register (राष्ट्रीय नागरिकता रजिस्टर)
NPR Full-Form - National Population Register (राष्ट्रीय लोकसंख्या रजिस्टर)
CAA/CAB Full-Form Citizenship Amendment Act/Bill (नागरिकता दुरुस्ती कायदा/विधेयक)

Many illegal migrants are coming from outside in every country of the world.
India is also one of those countries, as India is known as the paradise of the world, this number of illegal migrants is quite huge in India. NRC, CAA is nothing but the efforts taken by the Indian government (Modi govt.) in order to give citizenship to those migrants living in India except Muslims.

    Citizenship Amendment Act/Bill (CAA/CAB)

    This act is to give Indian citizenship to immigrants from Pakistan, Bangladesh, Afghanistan, and Sri-lanka, who was harassed on the basis of their religion. The citizenship will be given to immigrants of Hindu, Sikh, Jain, Isai, Parsi, Buddhist religion except Muslims.

    National Citizenship Register (NCR/NRC)

    To make a proper record of people in India on the basis of documents provided by them. People who succeed to provide any one document mentioned in this law will fall under NRC and will be considered as Indian, who don’t will not be considered as Indian and will be subject to the Indian jurisdictions and Govt’s further procedure as mentioned in the amendment.

    National Population Register (NPR)

    The register/record of all people living in India with their general background data.


    The National Population Register (NPR) is a Register of regular inhabitants of the nation. It is being set up at the local (Village/sub-Town), sub-District, District, State and National level under arrangements of the Citizenship Act 1955 and the Citizenship (Registration of Citizens and issue of National Identity Cards) Rules, 2003. It is compulsory for each typical occupant of India to enroll in the NPR. A standard inhabitant is characterized for the reasons for NPR as an individual who has dwelled in a local the previous a half year or more or an individual who plans to live around there for the following a half year or more.


    The objective of the NPR is to create a comprehensive identity database of every usual resident in the country. The database would contain demographic as well as biometric particulars.

    Documents Required

    The following  details of every individual are required for every usual resident:

    1. Name of person
    2. Relationship to head of household
    3. Father’s name
    4. Mother’s name
    5. Spouse’s name (if married)
    6. Sex
    7. Date of Birth
    8. Marital status
    9. Place of birth
    10. Nationality (as declared)
    11. Present address of usual residence
    12. Duration of stay at present address
    13. Permanent residential address
    14. Occupation/Activity
    15. Educational qualification

    Present Status of NPR:

    The data for National Population Register was collected in 2010 along with the house-listing the phase of Census of India 2011. The updation of this data was done during 2015 by conducting door to door surveys. The digitization of the updated information has been completed. Now it has been decided to update the National Population Register along with the House-listing phase of Census 2021 during April to September 2020 in all the States/UTs except Assam. A Gazette notification to this effect has already been published by the Central Government.

    Why we need NRC, CAA, and NPR?           

    The roots of this story can be found in late 1947 right after 1947-48 India vs Pakistan war. During this war, many people from Pakistan migrated to the Indian side illegally. In 1971s West Pakistan vs East Pakistan (today's Bangladesh) war India was on East Pakistan’s side, East Pakistan won the war and become an independent nation know as Bangladesh. During this war, many Bangladeshi people migrated to India.

    Not only from Pakistan and Bangladesh but also after the soviet vs Afghanistan war many people migrated to the Indian side. In addition to that, during Sri Lanka's civil war which was happened from 1980 to 2002 many Sri-Lankan people also migrated to India. Just like above many people keep coming to India.   

     In 1971s Pakistan Bangladesh(east pak) war, India was in favor of Bangladesh. Bangladesh won and separated from Pakistan during this thousands of people migrated to India’s Assam and West Bengal region.

    In many Assam’s regions, the count of immigrants from Bangladesh was greater than the local Assam's people, it caused the demolition of Assamese culture. Which created a huge problem after Assam people started protesting against those immigrants. The local Assam people were claiming that due to the huge count of immigrants, the so-called Bangladeshi culture was spreading around due to which their own culture was vanishing rapidly.

        The protest of Assam after 1971 got the worst in1978. Under the pressure of solving Assam’s problem government formed the Assam Accord in 1985, which is also known as Assam samzota. Where one can find the threads of NRC.
    The Assam Accord states that, the people who came inside the Assam after 24th of March (midnight) 1971 will be identified and deport back.
    To execute the Assam Accord by the deportation of immigrants it was the primary necessity and the challenge in front of the Indian government to the identification and finding the exact count of immigrants in Assam.

    For the identification of illegal immigrants in Assam, the government felt the need of a new amendment, which was after formed as NRC. With the help of this amendment (NRC) it became is to identify the immigrants

    The first report of NRC data was come to the Indian government in 2018, in which it has found that many people still illegally living in Assam with a certain number. The Supreme Court asked the current government to update the data. When updated the data in 2019 the actual count of immigrants found was 19 lakh. Which certainly needs to be deported back to their respective countries.

    The most interesting thing was, how it is decided that those people are illegal migrants?
    The answer is when NRC was implemented in Assam, the government had notified in the amendment the list of required documents to prove their origin. People who will provide any of these documents will fall under the NRC and who can't provide will not fall under NRC.

     Documents Required for NRC:

    1. 1951’s NRC listing proof (which was done at the time of 1951’s janganana)
    2. 24th March Nirvachan Niyamavali.
    3. Land/house rent or lease records.
    4. Citizenship Certificate provided by the government.
    5. Permanent resident certificate (sthai avaasi pramanpatra)
    6. Refugee Registration Certificate.
    7. Passport
    8. Any certificate/license provided by the government.
    9. Government service or Rojgar certificate.
    10. Bank or postal proofs.
    11. Birth Certificate
    12. Board/University Educational Certificate.

    In 2003 the citizenship act was amended by former prime-minister Sir, Atal Bihari Vajpayeeji. All this CAA thins came out from this amendment’s 14th clause and this amendment were known as the Citizenship Amendment. However many people are still confused about it.

    Amendment History of Citizenship Act

    Till now the Citizenship Act is amended 5 times. The legislation related to this matter is The Citizenship Act, 1955, which has been amended by the Citizenship (Amendment) Acts of 1986, 1992, 2003, 2005, 2015 and 2019. The 1986 amendment restricted citizenship by birth to require that at least one parent had to be an Indian citizen.

    Will NRC be implemented all over India?

    Considering the protest happened in all over India, BJP said that, they are not implementing NRC in any other region in India. However, there is a new system that can be considered as the base of NRC that is NPR is said to be implemented in India in 2020. NPR may have the same provisions as of the NRC.

    Why CAA is necessary?

    The people migrated to India from other countries still living without Indian citizenship which keeps them away from the government schemes, Govt. jobs, government welfare programs. It was a positive step taken by the Modi government to give citizenship to those people and include them in the main streamline.

    Why Muslims not included in CAA?

    According to CAA citizenship will be given to those migrants who migrated to India because they got harassed and abused on the basis of their religion as a minority, like Pakistan, Bangladesh and Afghanistan is known as the Muslim majority nation, so Muslims cannot be harassed there.

    What is NPR?

    National Population Register will have a record of all people living in India including immigrants. The CAA act was amended by Vajpayeeji in 2003. They made an amendment in 1955’s citizenship Act and added some clause in it. According to that, to solve the problem the government will issue National Identity Cards to Indian people. To provide this card the government has to create National Population Register (NPR) and cards will be provided according to it.
    The current Modi government is trying to implement the NPR in 2020 based on some documents that people have to submit during the process.

    By considering all the things it is clear that the NRC, CAA, and NPR all these things were not established by the Modi government. It was an old act in which the government will have to make changes from time to time according to the current needs and situations.

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